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Endnotes

[1] Peer group includes New York, Los Angeles, Austin, Boston, Seattle, and San Diego. Data taken from Moody’s Analytics with analysis by McKinsey & Company.

[2] Bay Area Council Economic Institute. “21st Century Infrastructure: Keeping California Connected, Powered, and Competitive.” April 2015.

[3] Data taken from California Employment Development Department.

[4] DeVol, Ross, Minoli Ratnatunga, and Armen Bedroussian. “2014 Best-Performing Cities: Where America’s Jobs are Created and Sustained.” Milken Institute, January 2015.

[5] Data sourced from US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

[6] Bay Area Council Economic Institute. “Technology Works: High-Tech Employment and Wages in the United States.” December 2012.

[7] Muro, Mark, et al. “America’s Advanced Industries: What They Are, Where They Are, and Why They Matter.” The Brookings Institution, February 2015.

[8] Data taken from U.S. Census Bureau, three-year American Community Survey estimates.

[9] Zillow. “Low Housing Supply Squeezes Affordability,” March 27, 2015 [Press Release].

[10] Bay Area Council Economic Institute. “In the Fast Lane: Improving Reliability, Stabilizing Local Funding, and Enabling the Transportation Systems of the Future in Alameda County.” July 2014.

[11] Data taken from California Department of Transportation: Annual Traffic Volume Reports (1992-2013).

[12] Bay Area Council Economic Institute. “In the Fast Lane: Improving Reliability, Stabilizing Local Funding, and Enabling the Transportation Systems of the Future in Alameda County.” July 2014.

[13] National Skills Coalition. “California’s Forgotten Middle.” Accessed at: http://www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/middle-skill-fact-sheets-2014/NSC-California-MiddleSkillFS-2014.pdf.

[14] Dobbs, Richard, James Manyika, and Jonathan Woetzel. No Ordinary Disruption – The Four Global Forces Breaking all the Trends. New York: Public Affairs, 2015, p. 187.

[15] Data taken from the California Department of Education.

[16] California Forward. “Financing the Future: How will California Pay for Tomorrow?” May 2015. Accessed at: www.cafwd.org.ftf.chp2.

[17] Berggruen Institute on Governance. “A Blueprint to Renew California.” 2014. Accessed at: http://berggruen.org/files/thinklong/2011/blueprint_to_renew_ca.pdf.

[18] California State Transportation Agency. “California Transportation Infrastructure Priorities Workgroup Whitepaper: Exploring a Road Usage Charge as an Alternative to the Gasoline Tax.” January 2015. Accessed at: http://www.calsta.ca.gov/res/docs/pdfs/2015/Agency/CTIP_RUCWhitepaper01122015.pdf.

[19] California Department of Water Resources. “Dry Water Year 2014 Ends Tomorrow: Conservation Critical as the New Water Year Begins.” September 29, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.water.ca.gov/news/newsreleases/2014/092914drywateryear.pdf.

[20] Carlton, Jim. “California Drought Will Cost $2.2 Billion in Agriculture Losses.” The Wall Street Journal, July 15, 2014.

[21] National Public Radio. “California’s Drought Ripples Through Businesses, Then to Schools.” April 20, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.npr.org/2014/04/20/304173037/californias-drought-ripples-through-businesses-and-even-schools.

[22] US Environmental Protection Agency, Pacific Southwest/Region 9. “EPA Progress Report 2015.” Accessed at: http://www.epa.gov/region9/annualreport/pdf/r9-annual-report-2015.pdf.

[23] Based on a San Francisco County Transportation Authority presentation to the California Foundation on the Environment and the Economy on April 30, 2015. Estimate utilizes an 8.5% discount rate over the life of the project.

[24] Bay Area Toll Authority. “Historic Toll-Paid Vehicle Counts and Total Toll Revenues.” Accessed at: http://bata.mtc.ca.gov/tolls/historic.htm.

[25] Holland & Knight. “Analysis of Recent Challenges to Environmental Impact Reports.” December 2012. Accessed at: http://www.hklaw.com/files/Publication/0804036e-e35b-47a8-ad57-49e7967d9bbd/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/b4db3057-0dbb-43f5-ac45-4b55b741722e/CEQA%20Study%20JH%20DG%202012.pdf.

[26] Association of Bay Area Governments. “Bay Area Progress in Meeting 2007–2014 Regional Housing Need Allocation (RHNA).” Accessed at: http://abag.ca.gov/files/RHNAProgress2007_2014_082815.pdf.

[27] Metropolitan Transportation Commission and Association of Bay Area Governments. “Vital Signs.” Accessed at: http://www.vitalsigns.mtc.ca.gov/commute-patterns.

[28] Ibid.

[29] UCLA Anderson Forecast. “Nation Should See Moderate Economic Growth; California Expects Steady Improvement in Unemployment.” June 3, 2015 [Press Release].

[30] California law passed in 1994 enables housing allocation transfers among jurisdictions under certain strict circumstances. According to Curtin’s California Land Use and Planning Law, the entities engaged in the transfer must have compliant Housing Elements, and the “donor” entity must have met at least 15% of its housing goals. The transfer agreement must include plans to construct the units within three years, and the regional council of government must review it. The percentage of a community’s housing goals to be transferred may not exceed the percentage of its goals that the community has already satisfied.

[31] California Tax Data. “What is Proposition 13?” Accessed at: http://www.californiataxdata.com/pdf/Prop13.pdf.

[32] US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. “A Community Guide to Factory-Built Housing.” Prepared by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., September 2001.

[33] Holland & Knight. “CEQA Judicial Outcomes: Fifteen Years of Reported California Appellate and Supreme Court Decisions.” May 2015. Accessed at: http://www.hklaw.com/files/Uploads/Documents/Articles/0504FINALCEQA.pdf.

[34] Shoup, Donald. “The High Cost of Minimum Parking Requirements.” Transport and Sustainability, Volume 5, 87-113. Emerald Group Publishing Limited: 2014.

[35] Blout, Casey, et al. “Redevelopment Agencies in California: History, Benefits, Excesses, and Closure.” U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. Working Paper No. EMAD-2014-01, January 2014.

[36] The remaining quarter of LAEDC’s 2014 funding stemmed from portfolio draws from investments and cash reserves held previously.

[37] The Bay Area Business Coalition’s membership consists of the Bay Area Council, Bay Planning Coalition, Building Industry Association, East Bay Economic Development Alliance, East Bay Leadership Council, Joint Venture Silicon Valley, North Bay Leadership Council, San Mateo Economic Development Association, and Solano Economic Development Corporation.

[38] New York City EDC was created as part of a city plan to consolidate the various providers of economic development services, which also involved the consolidation of certain city agencies.

[39] Legislative Analyst’s Office. “The 2012–13 Budget: Unwinding Redevelopment.” February 17, 2012. Accessed at: http://www.lao.ca.gov/analysis/2012/general_govt/unwinding-redevelopment-021712.aspx.

[40] The California Economic Summit connects regional and state leaders to develop a shared agenda to generate jobs and improve regional competitiveness.

[41] Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Local Area Unemployment Statistics.” Accessed at: http://www.bls.gov/lau/.

[42] California Workforce Investment Board. “Shared Strategy for a Shared Prosperity: California’s Strategic Workforce Development Plan, 2013-2017.” Accessed at: http://www.mtsac.edu/president/cabinet-notes/California%20Strategic%20Workforce%20Development%20Plan_2013-2017.pdf.

[43] Britt, Bill. “Career pathways point the way to boosting California’s workforce.” California Economic Summit, July 22, 2015. Accessed at: http://www.caeconomy.org/reporting/entry/career-pathways-point-the-way-to-boosting-californias-workforce.

[44] Song, Jason. “Fifteen community colleges in California to offer four-year degrees.” Los Angeles Times, January 20, 2015. Accessed at: http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-community-colleges-degrees-20150120-story.html.

[45] Buffer time index is a metric used by transportation planners to define the effects of heavier-than-normal traffic. For example, a 30-minute trip without traffic that takes 45 minutes in heavy traffic has a buffer time index of 0.5. This main measure of travel time uncertainty has risen by 16% in the morning rush hour and by 25% in the afternoon rush hour between 2011 and 2013, according to MTC “Vital Signs.”

[46] MTC. “Regional Goods Movement Study for the San Francisco Bay Area: 2009 Update.” February 2009.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Bay Area Council Economic Institute. “In the Fast Lane: Improving Reliability, Stabilizing Local Funding, and Enabling the Transportation Systems of the Future in Alameda County.” July 2014.

[49] Association of Bay Area Governments and Metropolitan Transportation Commission. “Draft Plan Bay Area: Transit Operating and Capital Needs and Revenue Assessment.” March 2013.

[50] Cabanatuan, Michael. “Clogged diamond lanes mean carpoolers get little relief.” San Francisco Chronicle, July 26, 2015. Accessed at: http://www.sfchronicle.com/traffic/article/Clogged-diamond-lanes-mean-carpoolers-get-little-6406723.php.